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Free Up Disk Space on Windows 8 with a Disk Cleanup

Disk Cleanup to Solve Low Disk Space Messages

Tips to free up disk space on Windows PCs, these disk cleanup pointers apply to the latest Windows versions, Windows 8.1, Windows 8 and Windows 7, also previous Windows versions, Windows Vista and Windows XP. With the use of Soild State Drives (SSDs) in new computers the amount of free disk space is generally lower than it used to be. This means that low disk space messages are more common. What types of messages will you see?

Low Disk Space and Similar Messages When The PC is Running

One day the PC is running OK, then out of the blue there are warning messages popping up. Sometimes these appear after installing a new program, or downloading a film from iTunes, or after a Windows Update. Sometimes the messages, or low disk space notifications, just start appearing for apparently no reason. Here are some of the typical messages that can be seen (and they usually come with a PC that starts running slower):

  • Low Disk Space.
  • Windows – Out of Virtual Memory.
  • Your system is low on virtual memory.
  • Your computer is low on memory.
  • Not enough storage is available to complete this operation.
  • There is not enough free disk space to run Steam.
  • There is not enough space to install these option(s).
  • There is not enough space on target drive while attempting to copy files.
  • There is not enough space on the disk.
  • There is not enough free disk space to extract the installation data.
  • There is not enough space on the Local Drive.
  • Close programs to prevent information loss.

What they generally mean (though not always) is that the PCs hard disk is nearly full up.If the hard disk gets completely full the computer will slow down and may not boot up correctly on next use. You may need to use a Windows boot disk or recovery disc to boot the system and free up some space.

Perform a Disk Cleanup to Free Up Disk Space

There are several disk cleanup task that can be performed. Once done the hard disk with be OK for a short while. However, a longer term solution will be required. Sometimes just reorganising the layout of the computers files will sort the issue. Sometimes it will be worth adding a new hard disk to reduce the problem in the future.

Accessing Control Panel in Windows 8.1 and Earlier Windows Versions

You will also need to access the computer’s Control Panel. On Windows 8 or Windows 8.1 at the Start screen start typing con and Control Panel will be listed for selection (or use the context menu, usually right click, on the Start flag and select Control Panel, alternatively hole the Windows key and press X then select Control Panel from the menu.) In Windows 7 and earlier access Control Panel via the Start button.

Use the Administrator Account for a Disk Cleanup

Let’s start the disk cleanup, You need to be logged on as a Computer Administrator to perform many of these cleanup tasks. If several users have accounts on the computer log in with one that is set up as a Computer Administrator (usually the first account created when the computer was first set up).

Empty the Recycle Bin

If there are items in the Recycle Bin on the desktop empty it. Look at the Recycle Bin icon on the desktop and if it looks like it has paper in it then it has items in it. Bring up Recycle Bin’s context menu (usually right-click) and select Empty Recycle Bin. A message may be displayed to confirm the permanent deletion. If required open the Recycle Bin (double-click) to check the contents.

Delete the Contents of the Windows Temporary Folder

Computer software, such as installers, apps and other programs will sometimes generate temporary files when running. Once the files are finished with they should be deleted by the software that generated them. Sometimes they don’t get deleted or the software crashes before the temporary files are deleted. If the software generated the files in the correct temporary location, either C:\Windows\Temp or in the logged on users AppData area (\AppData\Local\Temp), then these directories can be emptied.

(Sometimes the temporary directories are moved. To check their location view the systems environment variables. In Control Panel open System and Security select Advanced system settings. On the Advanced tab select Environment Variables. The location for temporary files is stored in the TEMP and TMP variables for the user and the system. TEMP and TMP normally point to the same place but can be set differently. User and system TEMP/TMP are normally different but again can be set to the same location.)

Close any running programs before cleaning the temporary directories. Using Windows File Explorer go to C:\Windows\Temp (or the location determined by the TEMP/TMP system environment variables). You may need to turn on Hidden items in Explorer using the View menu. Delete the all the contents of C:\Windows\Temp (you may need to give permission to do so). Some files and directories will not delete if programs or services are still using them.

Open the logged on users data folder. Either through C:\Users (e,g, C:\Users\John Doe for a user named John Doe) or the desktop with have a folder icon named after the user. Again with Hidden items enabled in Explorer browse to AppData\Local\Temp (or the location determined by the TEMP/TMP user environment variables). Delete all the contents. Again some may fail to delete because they are still in use.

If the computer has another hard disk with plenty of free space the TEMP and TMP directories can be changed to use the different disk. Change the TEMP/TMP user and system environment variables settings to a location on the other disk. E.g. create a TEMP directory on another hard disk, change the TEMP and TMP variables in Control Panel to point to the new directory. So if created on a D: drive it would be changed to D:\TEMP. Restart the computer for the change to take effect. Programs will use the new location for temporary files.

(Warning: A few programs will still use the default TEMP/TMP locations because of hard coded settings, including some Microsoft installers. So don’t forget to clear the C:\Windows\Temp and the user’s AppData\Local\Temp directories occasionally.)

Clear Web Caches and Move Them to Another Drive

For all the installed web browsers clear their caches. If the PC has another hard drive the cache locations can be moved to the other drive to help prevent low disk space issues in the future. The article Clear Web Cache and Moving Browser Cache Folder shows how to delete the web cache for Internet Explorer, Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox and Opera.

Remove Unused Programs and Bloatware (Manufacturer Install Software)

Open Control Panel and under Programs select Uninstall Program. For each program no longer, or never, used select it and select Uninstall. Only remove programs you are sure about as some will be needed by the system and some used by other programs. Research the program on line if unsure. If in doubt leave it installed.

Turn Off Windows Features

Again using Programs in Control Panel select Turn Windows features on or off. Uncheck anything not used, however, it is likely that only advanced users will know what features can be turned off. Research on line if unsure and if in doubt don’t change the settings.

Delete Old Folders, Documents, Photos, Videos and Music

Using Windows Media Player, or your chosen media player (e.g. iTunes), to delete any media no longer required. Use Windows File Explorer to view the contents of the logged on users files. Delete any item (folders and files) no longer required.

Clear Out the Offline Email

If you email is stored on the computer and not the server then browse all the items and delete anything not required. Do this in the email program.

Remove Old Users and Their Files

You will need to be logged in as a Computer Administrator to delete other user accounts. Make sure any data stored under old user accounts is no longer required (if so copy it to another account or to offline storage).

In Control Panel under User Accounts and Family Safety select Add or remove user accounts. Select the account to remove. Click Delete the account. When asked if files should be kept select Delete Files to recover the space used by the account. Select Delete Account to confirm. The user account and all its files are removed.

Ensure Windows is Up To Date

Windows is updated regularly to improve security and reliability. This update process uses and creates temporary files. To delete these files first make sure all the latest updates have been installed. Otherwise updates that have been downloaded but not installed may be removed during the clean up process. (If this occurs they will be downloaded again at the next update.)

In Windows 7 use Windows Update via Start and All Programs. In Windows 8 type Settings at the Start screen and select PC Settings, then Update and Recovery. (Or in Control Panel enter Update in the search box and select Windows Update.)

Select Check for updates or Check now to ensure that “No updates are available”. Otherwise Install Updates. The Windows Update may fail if there is not enough space to install the update. Sometimes installing updates one-by-one (oldest first) can overcome update errors. Otherwise finish this list of disk cleanup tips and then try performing Windows Update again.

Run the Disk Cleanup Program

Free Disc Space Using Windows Disk Cleanup Advanced OptionsWindows comes with a Disk Cleanup utility that is automatically run once in a while. However, it can be run to clean up additional system files. Start Disk Cleanup by selecting it via Start, All Programs, Accessories and System Tools. On Window 8 type Disk at the Start screen and select the option that starts Clear Disk Space…

Note that when Disk Cleanup is performing the work it can take some time to complete. You may need to plan to leave it running for quite a while.

Select the drive to clean up, i.e. the one low on space. It will do a scan to determine files to cleanup. When the Disk Cleanup dialog displays select the Clean up system files button. Select the drive again and another scan is performed. Now a More Options tab is available. On the More Options tab select Clean up in the System Restore and Shadow Copies area. Confirm deletion of all but the last restore point by selecting Delete to the displayed question.

Click the OK button to perform the clean up of the items listed on the Disk Cleanup tab.

Sometimes the Disk Cleanup utility can appear to hang. It after a few hours it has not completed restart the computer. Continue with the remainder of these tips and return to Disk Cleanup after the other steps have been completed.

Run a Cleanup Utility

A dedicated third party cleaner, such as Piriform’s CCleaner (Computer Cleaner), will detect other files to clear. Running a utility like CCleaner can help remove unwanted files.

Clear the SoftwareDistribution Download Folder

If Windows Update is complete (see the Ensure Windows is Up to Date section earlier). Some of the files used by Windows Update but no longer required may still be left around. These can be removed to free up disk space. This is covered in the separate article SoftwareDistribution Folder Delete in Windows.

Clear the Prefetch Folder

Every time Windows starts, every time the same program is run, Windows loads the same program files again and again. Knowing this Windows bundles those files together in a cache called the Prefetch Folder. This folder is updated automatically by Windows. However, if disk space is really tight, and you have removed some recently used programs, you may free a little more space by deleting the contents of Prefetch. Windows will recreate the Pretch folder when the computer next runs. The small downside to deleting the contents of the Prefetch folder is that Windows start up and the running of some software will be slower than normal until the new Prefetch files have been automatically recreated.

To delete the contents of the Prefetch folder open up Windows Explorer, click on the Windows directory (normally C:\Windows). Find the Prefetch folder (C:\Windows\Prefetch). Select all the files in the folder (use Ctrl-A) and press delete. Restart the computer. (New prefetch files will be created as the computer is used). Windows automatically manages the Prefetch folder so clearing it is only required if disk space is extremely low.

Delete System Dump Files and Change the Creation Location

Windows can crash because of a hardware or software fault, or loss of power. When this happens Windows can create dump files that may be sent to Microsoft (to help diagnose faults). A dump file is literally a “dump” of the state of computer at the time of the crash. There can be a MEMORY.DMP file in C:\Windows and in C:\Windows\Minidump a series of dump files for each crash that occurs (if Windows got the chance to create the file). Note that depending upon dump settings and the nature of the crash either MEMORY.DMP or the mini-dump files may or may not be created.

If you do not need to analyse the cause of a crash the dump files can be deleted (if not already deleted by Disk Cleanup or a third party cleaning tool). Using Windows Explorer see if MEMORY.DMP is in C:\Windows and if so delete it. Go to C:\Windows\Minidump. and select all the files and press delete.

If required the location that the dump files are created can be changed. If space on the system disk is tight move the location to a disk that has more space. In fact MEMORY.DMP will not be created if the system disk is low on space. If this is the case and the PC is crashing often then change the dump file location. This will give the opportunity for analysis of the dump file at a later date.

Use Control Panel to open System and Security and select System. For the left hand list select Advanced system settings. On the Advanced tab under Start-up and Recovery select the Settings button. On the Start-up and Recovery dialog change the dump file location in the Write debugging information section. E.g. if a D:\TEMP directory existed on a machine (and the D: drive had lots of free space) the Kernel memory dump could be changed from %SystemRoot%\MEMORY.DMP to D:\TEMP\MEMORY.DMP. Restart the computer if changes are made.

Move Personal Folders to Another Drive

The personal folders of the PC’s users are on the same drive as Windows by default. For PCs with multiple drives the personal folders (Documents, Music, Video etc.) can be moved to a hard disk with more room. The process is easily done with Windows Explorer. With Windows Explorer open locate the personal folder for the logged on user (e.g. Documents, Music, Pictures etc.), open the context menu (usually right-click). Select Properties. On the Location tab enter the new location (on a different hard drive with plenty of space) and click OK. Select to confirm creation of the new location and select Yes to confirm moving of the files. Full details on moving personal folders is in the article Move My Documents and Other Personal Folders in Windows 8.1, 8 and 7.

Move the Page File

A powerful PC may have 8GB or 16GB or RAM (memory). Less powerful computers may use a disk file call the Page File to simulate more memory, known as virtual memory. The page file (pagefile.sys) is on the system drive by default. If the computer has another drive (and if it is a faster drive) the page file can be moved to another drive. This can save space on the system drive. To change the page file location use the Advanced systems settings (in Control Panel open System and Security and select System. For the left hand list select Advanced system settings.) On the Advanced tab under Performance select the Settings button. Select the Advanced tab on the Performance Options dialogIn the Virtual Memory section select the Change button.

On the Virtual Memory dialog select a hard drive with free space, ideally the fastest drive in the system. (Uncheck the Automatically manage paging file size for all drives.) With the required drive selected choose the System managed size option (Windows sizes the page file as required). Click OK to close the dialog boxes, a system reboot will be required.

Move Installed Programs

If programs are no longer required they can be removed. For programs that are still used, and the install media is still available (or can be obtain via an Internet download), they can be re-installed. When re-installed instead of selecting the normal install location of C:\Program Files or C:\Program Files (x86) choose a drive with plenty of space and create a programs directory on it. E.g. D:\Programs. When a software installer runs some of them allow the install location to be selected (sometimes directly or via a Customize button). Change the install directory to a sub-directory in the new Programs directory (you may have chosen a different name for the alternative programs directory).

Run a Cleanup Utility Again

After performing the above clean up tips run a third party clean up tool again. It may find other items that can be deleted (e.g. files left over when a program is moved to a new drive).

Defragment the Drive (Does not Apply to Solid State Drives)

A hard drive is made of many thousands of sectors. When files are saved to a hard drive they are saved into the sectors. Sometimes the free sectors are next to each other. Some times they are spread out. This means a file can also be spread out. A sector may not be fully used up by a file as well. This means a drive may have lots of sectors with parts of files and lots of sectors partially filled with parts of files. This is known as fragmentation. A defragmentation utility will rearrange files and parts of files to use the sectors more efficiently. This can free some disk space. This does not apply to Solid State Drives (SSDs) as they use a different technology to store data.

On Windows defragmentation is done automatically at regular intervals. However, sometimes it needs to be run manually. In Windows 8 from the Start screen start typing defrag then select the Defragment and optimise your drives option. In Windows 7 from the Start button select All Programs then Accessories and the System Tools. Select the Disk Defragmenter utility.

Use a Third Party Defragmentation Utility

There are different defragmentation algorithms. Therefore a different defragmentation utility may free up a little more space. Try one if necessary, such as the Piriform Defraggler.

Install a New Disk

If a lot of the above steps could not be completed, because there is only one disk drive in the machine, consider adding a new hard disk. There are lots of tutorials on line showing how to add a hard disk to a computer, alternative someone you know can probably help or knows of someone to help you install a new disk. Adding another hard disk is reasonably easy. Once another disk has been added run through the above list again.

Turn of Windows Hibernation and Delete the Hibernation File

Windows supports a hibernation mode, the system can restart quicker from a power off state if hibernated. To do so the running configuration is stored in a file C:\hiberfil.sys. This can be almost as large as the amount of memory the machine has (e.g. 8 GB). If all the clean up options have been tried and space is still needed turning off hibernation and removing the hiberfil.sys file can free up desperately needed space. This is done via an administrators command prompt with powercfg.exe -h off. See the article hiberfil.sys Windows 8.1 Delete to Free Up SSD Space for full details.

Reformat the Hard Drive and Re-install the Operating System

This is probably the last resort step. Before resetting the PC with a fresh install of the operating system make sure any pictures, files or documents that must be kept have been copied to another location. An on line drive such as SkyDrive, Google Drive or Dropbox helps in this situation. Again if not sure how to do this find someone who can help or research on line.

Running low or running out of disk space can cause a PC to grind to a halt. However, by performing a disc clean up to free up disk space normal service can be resumed. This article has provided a few tips on how to achieve that.

Comment Spam Reduction from Rename of WordPress wp-comments-post.php

Renaming WordPress wp-comments-post.php File May Reduce Spam Comments

Allowing comments on a WordPress post is a way of engaging users and helps with encouraging repeat visits. However, there are far to many malicious web sites that want to use the WordPress comments feature to post links to themselves. This is often attempted by automated software called bots. The bots (software robots) will bypass any comment posting checks (such as CAPTCHA) and access the comment posting code directly via the WordPress file wp-comments-post.php. You can reduce the chance of comment spam by renaming wp-comments-post.php, this tutorial shows how to do it. Please note this will involve changes to your WordPress installation. Always ensure regular backups of the web site are available, just in case anything needs to be restored. (Most web hosting providers give access to a back up facility on top of their own backup routines. Contact your hosting provider to find out how to perform a specific backup of your web site.)

Another Advantage of Renaming wp-comments-post.php to Reduce Comment Spam

Every time comment spam is posted the web server that the site is hosted on has to consume resources. It runs PHP code and code to access the WordPress database. Executing code and sending the response out to the wp-comments-post.php request uses server resources. If the web site is on a low cost shared hosting plan then there is a limit to the resources available. Wasting resources responding to bots could result is proper visitors experiencing slow page responses. Renaming wp-comments-post.php can help lower overall server resource usage.

Renaming wp-comments-post.php

In this example the new name for the wp-comments-post.php file is going to be my-comments.php. Use what ever name is suitable.

The wp-comments-post.php file is a WordPress code file that is called from another WordPress code file called comment-template.php, in the directory wp-includes. If not using a standard WordPress theme then comments may be handled differently, check with the theme provider to see if the theme calls wp-comments-post.php.

The file comment-template.php is edited to change the reference to wp-comments-post.php to my-comments.php, at line 2022. In this tutorial it is assumed the web site is using the latest version of WordPress. If the web site hosting company does not have tools to change files on line then work locally with the files and upload them to the web server when ready. For example on a Windows machine use a text editor to edit a local copy of comment-template.php, remember it is in the wp-includes folder. The Windows Notepad program is not suitable for editing comment-template.php because of the line formatting style used in the file. Instead use a program such as Notepad++ to edit source code files.

(To get a local copy of the files use the web hosting tools to download the files. Alternatively download a zipped copy of WordPress from WordPress.org and unzip the files to a local directory.)

WordPress Updates May Require a Re-Edit of wp-comments-post.php

Since comment-template.php is a core WordPress file any WordPress updates may restore the original wp-comments-post.php name. After a WordPress update check that comment-template.php has not been changed. If it has edit it again to change the reference to wp-comments-post.php back to my-comments.php or whatever name was used.

Changing the theme-compat Directory

The file wp-comments-post.php is also referenced in the directory wp-includes/theme-compat, in comments-popup.php and comments.php. These files are deprecated (no longer used by the lastest WordPress releases). They are present in order to support old themes that have not been updated. If using the standard WordPress themes or other modern themes then these files can be deleted. Otherwise also change the reference to wp-comments-post.php to the new file name in both comments-popup.php and comments.php.

Copy wp-comments-post.php to the New File

With the name changed the next step is to copy wp-comments-post.php to the new file name, here called my-comments.php, use the name you have chosen. If doing this locally upload the new file to the wp-includes directory on the web site. If wp-comments-post-php gets changed in a WordPress update remember to copy the new version to a new my-comments.php.

Remove the Content of the Original wp-comments-post.php File

After creating the replacement wp-comments-post.php file the bots will still be trying to access the original. Therefore delete it. This will cause the web server to reply with a 404 error page. Alternatively to reduce the resources used to serve the 404 error page keep the wp-comments-post.php page but just delete all its contents. The bot is then just accessing a zero length file that does nothing.

Hopefully changing the wp-comments-post.php file in the web site’s WordPress installation will reduce the number of annoying comment spam that clutters the site administration pages as well as the time need to handle it.

Test the Changes Made to the Site to Reduce Comment Spam

Once all the changes have been made then test that comments are working. Browse to a post that allows comments and add one. The ability to add comments should work as before. If not double check the steps given above. If necessary the changes made can be undone by replacing the changed files with originals from a WordPress zip file from WordPress.org.

Summary

To reduce comment spam bot hits on wp-comments-post.php:

  • On the web server copy wp-comments-post.php to a new file, e.g my-comments.php.
  • In the wp-includes directory, in the file comment-template.php change the text wp-comments-post.php at line 2022 to the new file name, e.g. my-comments.php.
  • Delete the files in the wp-includes/theme-compat directory (or if using old non-WordPress themes change the references to wp-comments-post.php in comments.php and comments-popup.php).
  • Delete wp-comments-post.php so that bots get a 404 error response. Alternatively edit the file and remove all its contents for a low resource response.
  • Test that comments can still be posted.
  • When a WordPress update is released make sure that the wp-comments-post.php file has not been restored. If so copy it over to the new version (e.g. my-comments.php) and delete it or remove its contents. Also check that comment-template.php has not been restored. If so change the reference to wp-comments-post.php back to the new name (e.g. my-comments.php).

Android Icon Size – Launcher and Google Play Store

What is the Android Icon Size for an App?

For Android launcher icons you will need 6 sizes of PNG or JPG files. In pixels these are 48×48, 72×72, 96×96, 144×144, 192×192 and 512×512. The first five are for the App and the last one for when the App is deployed to the Google Play store. These are the final size of the icons and you must allow for a small margin, hence the area the icon is drawn in will be a bit smaller. For low density screens Android halves the 72×72 icon, but it is possible to include a 36×36 icon in the App for completeness, making 7 icons in total. An Android icon size table in this article summarizes all the relevant information.

144x144 XXHDPI Android Icon Size96x96 XHDPI Android Icon Size72x72 HDPI Android Icon Size48x48 MDPI Android Icon Size36x36 LDPI Android Icon Size

Android Screen Densities

The number of dots (pixels) per inch that an Android device’s screen holds determines how sharp the image on the screen looks. The more Dots Per Inch (DPI) the sharper the image. Android groups screen densities into several classes, medium, high, extra high, extra extra high and extra extra extra high! These are referred to as MDPI, HDPI, XHDPI, XXHDPI and XXXHDPI. There is also a low density class, LDPI, however not many new devices have a low density screen and thus LDPI is no longer important. MDPI is around 160 DPI, HDPI around 240 DPI, XHDPI around 320 DPI, XXHDPI around 480 DPI and XXXHDPI around 640 DPI. (LDPI is around 120 DPI). It is the screen density that determines the Android icon size used.

Android Launcher Icon Name and Location

When a new Android project is created in Eclipse or Android Studio the launcher icon file is called ic_launcher.png. You can choose the Create custom launcher icon option in the New Android Application wizard (New Project wizard in Android Studio). This allows you to configure the launcher icon based on the default Android robot, or an image file, or from several clip art images, or finally from some text. If an icon is not configured the default robot is used. The various size icons are created and placed into a folder in the projects res directory. The folders are drawable-mdpidrawable-hdpi, drawable-xhdpi and drawable-xxhdpi. It you need a low density, LDPI, icon create put a 36×36 PNG or JPG in the drawable-ldpi folder. To support Cupcake devices (API level 3) add a drawable folder and copy the 48×48 PNG or JPG file from drawable-mdpi to it. For the latest highest density displays create a drawable-xxxhdpi folder for a 192×192 icon.

The icon is referenced in the Android manifest. In the projects AndroidManifest.xml file the <application> tag has an android:icon attribute. This is set to @drawable/ic_launcher. The icon file’s name does not need to be ic_launcher, it can be called something else. For example if all the icon files for the various sizes were called my_app_icon.png then the attribute in the application tag could be set as android:icon=@drawable/my_app_icon.

Notice how the reference to the icon only needs the drawable part of the folder name. Android works out the correct density icon to use. Android will also scale one of the other density icons if an icon at a certain density is missing (though that may result in a fuzzy icon being displayed on the screen).

Android Icon Margins

The Android Operating System (OS) has evolved since it was released. This means that the icon requirements have changed over the years. The main changes are the increase in screen sizes and screen densities. Low density and medium density devices were common. Now high density and extra high density devices are the most common.

Previously it was recommend that the icon included a margin around one twelfth of the total size between the edge of the icon and the image it contained. For example the medium density icon is 48×48 pixels, one twelfth of this is 4, giving a margin of 4 pixels around the icon. This means the area available for the image is 40×40 (48 minus the margin of 4 pixels on each side).

However, the bigger screens on today’s devices gives more room for the icons so a smaller margin can be used, for example one eighteenth of the icon size. The margin allows for spaces between the icons on a screen and to allow for any drop shadows or parts of the image that stick out a little.

The High Resolution Application Icon needed for the Google Play store must be 512×512 in size. This image can have a margin to allow for padding or drop shadows, for example it could be 464×464 on the 512×512 canvas giving 48 pixels for padding and drop shadows. Again the size of the margin may depend upon the type of image being used, but the final file will be a 512×512 in size.

Android Bitmap Assets Ratios

With the 48×48 icon as baseline the 6 launcher icons have the ratios 0.75, 1, 1.5, 2, 3 and 4. These ratios apply to the screen densities. So a high density screen (HDPI) is 1.5 times a medium density screen (MDPI). I.e. 1.5 * 160 = 240. Likewise for the other densities. These ratios generally apply to all images used in an App that target different screen densities. If a bitmap is 100×100 on a medium density screen use the ratios to calculate the bitmap sizes required for other densities (75, 150, 200, 300 and 400 in this case). When generating icons and bitmap assets work at a high resolution and scale down, this prevents pixelation of the images. E.g. a canvas of 576×576 or 864×864 is good for design work. An art-board of those sizes is bigger than the biggest icon required (512×512 for the Google Play store). Even better use a vector drawing package such as Inkscape which effectively allows working at any resolution.

Android Icon Size Table

The following table summarizes all the above information.

Android Icon Size and Location for Apps
Density size Location Ratio Screen Margin
XXXHDPI 192×192 drawable-xxxhdpi 4 640 DPI 12 to 16 pixels
XXHDPI 144×144 drawable-xxhdpi 3 480 DPI 8 to 12 pixels
XHDPI 96×96 drawable-xhdpi 2 320 DPI 6 to 8 pixels
HDPI 72×72 drawable-hdpi 1.5 240 DPI 4 to 6 pixels
MDPI 48×48 drawable-mdpi 1 160 DPI 3 to 4 pixels
MDPI 48×48 drawable (Cupcake) 1 160 DPI 3 to 4 pixels
LDPI 36×36 drawable-ldpi 0.75 120 DPI 2 to 3 pixels
NA 512×512 Google Play NA NA As required

You will find a few icons on the Android Graphic Resources page, and of course many thousands more on the web.

For more information on Android Icons see the Iconography web page on the Android Developers web site.

AdMob Ad Incorporated into an Android Activity

A Tutorial on Adding an AdMob Ad to an Android App

Displaying advertisements (ads) is one way of monetizing an App. To monetize (monetise) something is turn turn it into cash. That term applied to Apps and web pages refers to getting revenue through ads or paid content. Showing ads is one way of generating an income from the time and effort spent developing the App. Though a reasonably successful App is required to generate worthwhile funds. Other techniques include charging a price for the App and providing additional content within the App for a fee (In-App Billing).

Google makes it relatively easy to include ads into an App as the simple example code here shows. This tutorial should help those who may have found it difficult to get the example provided with the online AdMob documentation to work. It is assumed that your computer is configured for developing Apps using the Eclipse Integrated Development Environment (IDE) (see Set Up Windows for Android Development if not), and that you can create and run a simple App (see Your First Android Java Program if in doubt). All the steps required to get ad serving in your App working are covered. So read on to find out how to add AdMob to Android Apps.

Get an AdMob Account

You get a very small payment for each ad that is selected (clicked or pressed on) from a device that is running your App. So that Google can make that small payment it must identify in which App the ad was selected. This is done by placing a unique Publisher Id in the code that is showing the ads. To get the unique id for each App you need an AdMob account. Head over to http://www.google.com/ads/admob/ and sign up, you will need a Google account to register.

Target SDK Must be 3.2 or Higher

Your App is ready for publishing, lets put in the ad serving code so that when you activate it on Google Play it can (potentially) make you some money. In this tutorial we will add the code to an existing example project, in this case the code that was written for the article Two Line Lists In Android. You can also follow this tutorial but use your own App to add the code. Continue reading

Google Play Publishing Graphics Checklist

You like your Android Phone or Tablet, it gives you easy portable computing with access to thousands of programs that cover almost any subject. Almost. That App that you wanted doesn’t exist so you’ve invested some time and energy and made it yourself. Now you’d like to publish it so that others can use it, and maybe make a little money on the side. Unfortunately you’ll need to break out the creative talents again and come up with some promotional graphics, because your App will not be listed on Google Play (formerly Android Market) unless those graphics are available. The following table lists the graphic and media images you will need to produce to publish on Google Play.

Media Assets Required for Google Play App Publishing
Item Type Opt. Size Alpha Padding
2 to 8 Screenshots 24-bit PNG/JPG No 320×480 or 480×800 or 480×854 No No
Large App Icon 32-bit PNG No 512×512 (1024KB max.) Yes Allowed
Promo Image 24-bit PNG/JPG Yes 180×120 No No
Feature Image 24-bit PNG/JPG Yes 1024×500 (924×400 useable) No Yes
YouTube Video Link URL Yes N/A N/A N/A

Notes:

  • Provide every asset for a professional app listing, even those that are optional.
  • PNG is a Portable Networks Graphics file, file extension normally .png.
  • JPG file extension is normally .jpg or .jpeg and is a Joint Photographics Expert Group graphics format.
  • All graphics sizes are give as X pixels times Y pixels (i.e. 320×480 is 320 pixels wide by 480 pixels high).
  • Alpha determines whether or not the alpha channel is support for the given image being used.
  • Do not put a border around the edge of any graphics.
  • Use large fonts, bright contrasting colors and crisp designs that are not overly detailed. Particularly for the Feature Image which may be scaled down.

See the article High Resolution App Icon for Google Play Publishing for a tutorial on generating the 512×512 image.

See the article Grabbing an Android Device Screenshot for information on generating the screenshots required.

The Google web page Graphic Assets for your Application has further details.